How Can An Overlooked Element Beautify Your Landscape Design?

Rethinking Landscape Design With Trench Grates

According to Webster Dictionary, “landscape” is defined as, “a picture representing a section of natural, inland scenery, as of prairie, woodland, mountains… and expanse of natural scenery seen by the eye in one’s view”. We all know that a good landscaping design is more than a beautiful scenery. You can read on to find out the often neglected yet significant element in landscape design.

Smartphones have revolutionized our daily lives. Admit it, a fifteen-minute walk with your beloved pet dog becomes an opportunity to scroll through your Instagram feed. If you look around, you will see many heads down and eyes glued to screen. These new ways of living highlight the importance of efficient and reliable for landscape design.

Massachusetts is a U.S. state in New England known for its significant Colonial history. In Boston, its capital, the Freedom Trail is a walking route of sites related to the American Revolution. These include the Bunker Hill Monument, commemorating the war’s first major battle in 1775. The city is also home to the Museum of Fine Arts and other notable institutions. The Red Sox pro baseball team plays at Fenway Park.
Massachusetts State.
Population: 6,811,779.
State Capital: Boston.

Our Relationship With Landscape Designs

Landscape design is all about the interactions and actions between natural scenery and human beings. Thoughtful and smart designers will understand this human behavior to enhance their landscape designs. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder, but the first step is to actually let the beholder see it. The ‘new’ eye level has become the floor instead of buildings these days. People give notice to the ground more than they used to! Landscape designers have to transform their perspective of beauty and understand how people see things.  If you need to engage a landscape architect in Massachusetts, check out Massachusetts Association of Landscape Professionals.

Also, the mode of transport continues to change in different cities. It is no longer about the skyscrapers or making places look environmentally friendly. The public is rediscovering the advantages of cycling.

In China, and many cities around the world, public bicycle-hire sharing is common. Urban planners have to respond by relooking into infrastructure elements to keep cyclists safe and not cause any potential hazards. Old cast iron drain with grill covers have caused incidents of severe injuries as well.

The design of metropolitan cities areas has to adapt accordingly to the way people live.

Massachusetts was one of the original 13 states and one of the 6 New England states located in the northeastern region of the United States. Massachusetts is bordered by Vermont to the north, New Hampshire to the east and Atlantic Ocean to the southeast with Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south and New York to the west.
Massachusetts is the sixth smallest state in the region and the capital is Boston. The name “Massachusetts” means “near the great hill” and this hill is believed to be the Blue Hill which is located in the south of Boston. Massachusetts is unique among the different states due to its culture and history compared to the rest of the country.

Rediscovering Trench Drain Covers

 

In 2014, a California student, Huang, understood this smartphone phenomenon. He came up with an interesting way-finding concept of “incorporating designs on the ground”. There were street signs placed on the floor to guide footpath.

What can you do to beautify your overall landscape design? Try looking beneath your feet when you are walking along the streets and you will find something – drain covers.

While many overlook it, a good urban designer should see trench covers as an integral piece when designing for large squares or plazas. This person understands the true value of trench covers. When you are concerned about the smallest details, it signals to your clients your professionalism and attention to matters.

Trench covers, also known as drain covers, is not a mere sewage cover but it can help to build up a sense of place. (a sense of place in architectural context..) A place lacking “a sense of place” is seen as soulless and inauthentic. Similarly, our perception of small details can heighten our customers’ confidence in us.

It would surely be pleased to catch one’s attention. Imagine someone getting out from a pool and the beautiful pool gratings catch their attention. They realized that someone actually bothered about the details and appreciate the idea behind these gratings. You can also help to integrate your client’s identity into the smallest infrastructure element through unique shapes or colors.

Massachusetts was the pioneer when the United States began transforming itself into an industrial powerhouse. Massachusetts’ merchants whose income depended on trade began to transit into urbanisation and industrialisation after sever losses during the war of 1812. In 1870s, Massachusetts become the first state in the US where more people lived in cities and towns than rural areas.
Throughout the 19th century, Massachusetts was a leading manufacturing centre. In the first half of the 20th century, competition from the southern states lead to massive economic decline in Massachusetts which caused large scale factories closure in the states. However during World War 2 and the Cold War, new high technology industries that depended on the Federal government’s spending blosomed and new built a new economy with Boston as the centre.

A Brief Introduction Of Drain Covers

An effective way of sewage management requires proper drainage and waste disposal.

Drain covers are used to mark the entrances to underground sewage system underneath urban environment. Though commonly believed as a mere drainage cover, drain covers are used to filter water in a water system and it prevents bigger objects from being flushed into the drain. This actually helps to prevent environmental contamination.

The common trench drain covers are made out of cast iron and/or concrete. Due to the high resale value of metal scrap, there have been reports on drain covers theft around the world. Most common theft is reported to be in China, UK, and the USA. Stolen drain covers can potentially threaten one’s safety. There have also been reports of toddlers’ deaths due to a .. stolen drain covers.

Other than its function to separate waste, many cities are embedding their local culture into drain cover designs. Find out more about construction safety nets here.

There has been a popular belief around the shape of drain covers. It has to be round. The idea of a round shaped trench covers ensures the trench grates do not fall through the drain circular opening, as compared to other shapes like square or rectangle.

Cast iron trench covers are usually heavy and might potentially kill someone if dropped. If it is a square shape, someone can hold the gratings diagonally and drop it in. It has been round shape as it is easy to create as compared to other shapes.

-Situated in the heart of downtown Boston, Boston Common is a public park that dates back to 1634, making it the oldest city park in the US. The Common is close to 50 acres in size and serves as a connection point for a number of parks that wind through Boston’s neighborhoods.

TRENDING ISSUES OF DRAIN COVERS

Injured Cyclists
There has been an increased report of injured cyclist due to a bad fall caused by grill drain covers. Montreal, the North American city, is the city to first build bicycle tracks for its citizens. However, it is threatening the safety of cyclists due to its unsafety drill covers and congested corridors.

You see it in television series where the female lead’s bicycle gets stuck and here comes the prince charming. Well, it just proves the negative stigma around drain covers – black, smelly, ugly and accidental causing. Be sure to put yourselves into the shoes of your client’s targeted audience. Think of the profile of their target audience and the lifestyles.

For example, a five-star hotel calls for the importance of heavy load bearing drain covers at the carpark. Trust me, if a bicycle tire can get stuck and cause accidents, you can be certain that a lady will have their heels stuck and end up tripping over. You do not want to risk your client’s reputation by damaging their customers’ sports car. Neither do you want your design to pose inconveniences to their customers such as having their heels stuck in the drain and tripping over. How embarrassing and inconsiderate is that situation!

Your clients are looking for architects that will put on their shoes and considers the needs of their customers.

Below are the top 10 largest cities in the state of Massachusetts and the number of people inhabiting them according to the 2010 national census:
1. Boston – 617,594
2.Worcester – 181,045
3. Springfield – 153,060
4. Lowell – 106,519
5. Cambridge – 105,162
6. New Bedford – 95,072
7. Brockton – 93,810
8. Quincy – 92,271
9. Lynn – 90,329
10.Fall River – 88,857

Poor Waste Water Management
Also, over the years, we also see natural disasters exposing the poorly built water infrastructure.

An example would be Hurricane Sandy, where previously built wastewater management was so bad, and it threatened drinking water. In order to ensure the public health and safety, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency had to provide grants to the state of New Jersey to improvement sewage system.

Prior to popular belief, United States is still facing a growing population unlike Western Europe and parts of Asia. This emphasizes the importance of having a good drain cover for wastewater management. These days, technology has changed how drain covers are being created. These drain covers are designed with plenty of careful considerations too.

The majesty of natural stone is perhaps best expressed by the magnificence of the stone castles of England. Inspired by the rustic appeal of natural stone, we wondered if the material could be used to make functional and beautiful grates.

Theft Issues
In the UK, public safety is currently at risk due to the high amount of drain covers being stolen. This theft issue presents a real danger to road users and it is extremely a hassle and costly to replace. If conventional steel and cast iron grates and castings are stolen for their metal content, why not look for an alternative material.

You do not have to worry about your clients’ drain covers being stolen and finding an exact dimensions grates and casting to replace it. Technology is great! Believe it or not, there are different materials, such as plastic or natural materials, used for hardscape products.

Below are the tallest buildings in Massachusetts:
-The 200 Clarendon building in Boston is also known as the John Hancock Tower. At 70 stories and 790 feet tall and built in 1976, it has been the tallest building in Massachusetts for 30 years.
1. 200 Clarendon Street (60 stories; 790 feet)
2. Prudential Tower (10 Light Street) (52 stories; 749 feet)
3. Millennium Tower (60 stories; 685 feet)
4. Federal Reserve Bank Building (32 stories; 614 feet)
5. One Boston Place (41 stories; 601 feet)
6. One International Place (46 stories; 600 feet)
7. 100 Federal Street (37 stories; 591 feet)
8. One Financial Centre (46 stories; 590 feet)
9. 111 Huntington Avenue (36 stories; 554 feet)
10. 111 Huntington Avenue (35 stories; 538 feet)

Tailored-Made Trench Gratings / Aesthetics Of Drain Covers


“Manhole covers are not simply there to hide away dirty sewers,” Sasabe, a manhole enthusiast, said. “I’m interested in what’s under the manhole covers.” Japanese people believe that drain covers are cultural products.

It dates back to 1980s when Japan was modernizing their drain sewage infrastructure in developing regions. This change was met with a high level of resistance due to expensive cost. When presented with an opportunity to showcase cultural pride through manholes, the people started to accept this change. This is actually in line with the classical theory of a sense of belonging within a place. This theory suggests that a sense of belonging in a place is built through giving people opportunities to modify space they are in.

Till this date, the streets of Japan are adorned with decorative trench covers and Japanese takes pride in it. People are also spending money to attend manhole summit held in Western part of Japan.

Don’t be surprised to find online accounts dedicated to the cause of this cast-iron street furniture. In the UK, Corbyn shares his photos on drain covers online and it went viral.

People have built their hobby around drainspotting and there are individuals have been also collecting coal-hole covers. This hobby dates back to 1962. It is almost as if they are collecting art pieces or stamps. One of the world’s scare collector item, Manhole of Los Angeles, is also a book solely dedicated to manhole covers.

Drains are the bedrock of civilization and metropolitan cities. There are manhole enthusiasts whom want to get people to appreciate the art of coal-hole covers because everywhere is filled with them. They find it a pity for young and old to never notice what’s beneath their feet daily. Drain covers should not be noticed only when you accidentally step into one and break your leg. It should capture your attention instead of getting overlooked at.

This drain covers attempts to establish an identity of its surroundings. It enables people to own the place and enjoy being in the place. Each drain covers tell a different story. Therefore, infrastructure elements, such as concrete trench drains and manhole covers, must no longer be overlooked.

The greatest bane of a designer would be the limitations of colors and designs. It is commonly believed that gratings can only in the usual shapes such as round, square or rectangle. However, the times and seasons have changed. There are tailor-made grating services offered by certified drain grates supplier and manufacturer.

This is when we are no longer able to see our vision come alive and our creativity is limited. This ensures that drain gratings will never be hideous looking and have you googled on how to hide manhole covers and drains. Tailor-made gratings can add an artistic touch to toilets, swimming pools, carpark, and sidewalks.

Small Details Matter


Former CEO of Coca-Cola, Schimberg, was presented with new packaging of the products. The modern and design were well-received by all attendees in the room. Till he asked a game-changing question, will it stand out on the shelf? This caught the whole room dumbfounded and got them to rethink. He understood that the company’s products are best sold on crowded store shelves and this design will be overlooked. This was proven when they try to experiment it in a grocery store and shoppers merely looked past it.

All these details, such as drain covers, are usually overlooked by clients. What makes you stand out is when you offer your services and take into account all these small, nitty details. Surely, your clients will appreciate it. The difference between a five-star hotel and a four-star hotel is in the small details.

For example. the difference between both with an amenity of swimming pool is the pool gratings. This pool grating is not just slipped proof. It can be designed to convey the identity of the hotel through colors and shapes.

Look out for the smallest details – colors, size and design in drain covers.

Remember it is the little details that yields the biggest outcomes. It demonstrates excellence and professionalism to your clients. Your clients will be confident to trust you with complicated matters and return with another project in the future.

Conclusion
If you are interested in high-quality trench drain grates, Jonite pioneers the world’s first reinforced decorative stone grating. Our products have been developed through 20 over years of extensive research and development by a team of dedicated and passionate individuals.

Jonite offers tailor-made products and wants to help you beautify your landscape design through the smallest details.

List of cities & architects in Massachusetts

– A –
Cities in Massachusetts that begin with the letter “A”.

Abington, MA
Accord, MA
Acton, MA
Acushnet, MA
Adams, MA
Agawam, MA
Allston, MA
Amesbury, MA
Amherst, MA
Andover, MA
Arlington, MA
Arlington Heights, MA
Ashburnham, MA
Ashby, MA
Ashfield, MA
Ashland, MA
Ashley Falls, MA
Assonet, MA
Athol, MA
Attleboro, MA
Attleboro Falls, MA
Auburn, MA
Auburndale, MA
Avon, MA
Ayer, MA
– B –
Cities in Massachusetts that begin with the letter “B”.

Babson Park, MA
Baldwinville, MA
Barnstable, MA
Barnstable Town, MA
Barre, MA
Becket, MA
Bedford, MA
Belchertown, MA
Bellingham, MA
Belmont, MA
Berkley, MA
Berkshire, MA
Berlin, MA
Bernardston, MA
Beverly, MA
Billerica, MA
Blackstone, MA
Blandford, MA
Bolton, MA
Bondsville, MA
Boston, MA
Boxborough, MA
Boxford, MA
Boylston, MA
Braintree, MA
Brant Rock, MA
Brewster, MA
Bridgewater, MA
Brighton, MA
Brimfield, MA
Brockton, MA
Brookfield, MA
Brookline, MA
Brookline Village, MA
Bryantville, MA
Buckland, MA
Burlington, MA
Buzzards Bay, MA
Byfield, MA
– C –
Cities in Massachusetts that begin with the letter “C”.

Cambridge, MA
Canton, MA
Carlisle, MA
Carver, MA
Cataumet, MA
Centerville, MA
Charlemont, MA
Charlestown, MA
Charlton, MA
Charlton City, MA
Charlton Depot, MA
Chartley, MA
Chatham, MA
Chelmsford, MA
Chelsea, MA
Cherry Valley, MA
Cheshire, MA
Chester, MA
Chesterfield, MA
Chestnut Hill, MA
Chicopee, MA
Chilmark, MA
Clinton, MA
Cohasset, MA
Colrain, MA
Concord, MA
Conway, MA
Cotuit, MA
Cummaquid, MA
Cummington, MA
Cuttyhunk, MA
– D –
Cities in Massachusetts that begin with the letter “D”.

Dalton, MA
Danvers, MA
Dartmouth, MA
Dedham, MA
Deerfield, MA
Dennis, MA
Dennis Port, MA
Dighton, MA
Douglas, MA
Dover, MA
Dracut, MA
Drury, MA
Dudley, MA
Dunstable, MA
Duxbury, MA
– E –
Cities in Massachusetts that begin with the letter “E”.

East Bridgewater, MA
East Brookfield, MA
East Dennis, MA
East Falmouth, MA
East Freetown, MA
East Longmeadow, MA
East Mansfield, MA
East Orleans, MA
East Otis, MA
East Princeton, MA
East Sandwich, MA
East Taunton, MA
East Templeton, MA
East Walpole, MA
East Wareham, MA
Eastham, MA
Easthampton, MA
Easton, MA
Edgartown, MA
Elmwood, MA
Erving, MA
Essex, MA
Everett, MA
– F –
Cities in Massachusetts that begin with the letter “F”.

Fairhaven, MA
Fall River, MA
Falmouth, MA
Fayville, MA
Feeding Hills, MA
Fiskdale, MA
Fitchburg, MA
Florence, MA
Forestdale, MA
Foxboro, MA
Foxborough, MA
Framingham, MA
Franklin, MA
– G –
Cities in Massachusetts that begin with the letter “G”.

Gardner, MA
Georgetown, MA
Gilbertville, MA
Glendale, MA
Gloucester, MA
Goshen, MA
Grafton, MA
Granby, MA
Granville, MA
Great Barrington, MA
Green Harbor, MA
Greenbush, MA
Greenfield, MA
Groton, MA
Groveland, MA
– H –
Cities in Massachusetts that begin with the letter “H”.

Hadley, MA
Halifax, MA
Hamilton, MA
Hampden, MA
Hanover, MA
Hanscom AFB, MA
Hanson, MA
Hardwick, MA
Harvard, MA
Harwich, MA
Harwich Port, MA
Hatfield, MA
Hathorne, MA
Haverhill, MA
Haydenville, MA
Heath, MA
Hingham, MA
Hinsdale, MA
Holbrook, MA
Holden, MA
Holland, MA
Holliston, MA
Holyoke, MA
Hopedale, MA
Hopkinton, MA
Housatonic, MA
Hubbardston, MA
Hudson, MA
Hull, MA
Humarock, MA
Huntington, MA
Hyannis, MA
Hyannis Port, MA
Hyde Park, MA
– I –
Cities in Massachusetts that begin with the letter “I”.

Indian Orchard, MA
Ipswich, MA
– J –
Cities in Massachusetts that begin with the letter “J”.

Jamaica Plain, MA
Jefferson, MA
– K –
Cities in Massachusetts that begin with the letter “K”.

Kingston, MA
– L –
Cities in Massachusetts that begin with the letter “L”.

Lake Pleasant, MA
Lakeville, MA
Lancaster, MA
Lanesboro, MA
Lawrence, MA
Lee, MA
Leeds, MA
Leicester, MA
Lenox, MA
Lenox Dale, MA
Leominster, MA
Leverett, MA
Lexington, MA
Lincoln, MA
Linwood, MA
Littleton, MA
Longmeadow, MA
Lowell, MA
Ludlow, MA
Lunenburg, MA
Lynn, MA
Lynnfield, MA
– M –
Cities in Massachusetts that begin with the letter “M”.

Malden, MA
Manchaug, MA
Manchester, MA
Manomet, MA
Mansfield, MA
Marblehead, MA
Marion, MA
Marlborough, MA
Marshfield, MA
Marshfield Hills, MA
Marstons Mills, MA
Mashpee, MA
Mattapan, MA
Mattapoisett, MA
Maynard, MA
Medfield, MA
Medford, MA
Medway, MA
Melrose, MA
Mendon, MA
Menemsha, MA
Merrimac, MA
Methuen, MA
Middleboro, MA
Middlefield, MA
Middleton, MA
Milford, MA
Mill River, MA
Millbury, MA
Millis, MA
Millville, MA
Milton, MA
Milton Village, MA
Minot, MA
Monponsett, MA
Monroe Bridge, MA
Monson, MA
Montague, MA
Monterey, MA
Monument Beach, MA
– N –
Cities in Massachusetts that begin with the letter “N”.

Nahant, MA
Nantucket, MA
Natick, MA
Needham, MA
New Bedford, MA
New Braintree, MA
New Salem, MA
New Town, MA
Newbury, MA
Newburyport, MA
Newton, MA
Newton Center, MA
Newton Highlands, MA
Newton Lower Falls, MA
Newton Upper Falls, MA
Newtonville, MA
Nonantum, MA
Norfolk, MA
North Adams, MA
North Amherst, MA
North Andover, MA
North Attleboro, MA
North Billerica, MA
North Brookfield, MA
North Carver, MA
North Chatham, MA
North Chelmsford, MA
North Dartmouth, MA
North Dighton, MA
North Eastham, MA
North Easton, MA
North Egremont, MA
North Falmouth, MA
North Grafton, MA
North Hatfield, MA
North Marshfield, MA
North Oxford, MA
North Pembroke, MA
North Reading, MA
North Scituate, MA
North Truro, MA
North Uxbridge, MA
Northampton, MA
Northborough, MA
Northbridge, MA
Northfield, MA
Norton, MA
Norwell, MA
Norwood, MA
Nutting Lake, MA
– O –
Cities in Massachusetts that begin with the letter “O”.

Oak Bluffs, MA
Oakham, MA
Ocean Bluff, MA
Onset, MA
Orange, MA
Orleans, MA
Osterville, MA
Otis, MA
Oxford, MA
– P –
Cities in Massachusetts that begin with the letter “P”.

Palmer, MA
Paxton, MA
Peabody, MA
Pembroke, MA
Pepperell, MA
Petersham, MA
Pinehurst, MA
Pittsfield, MA
Plainfield, MA
Plainville, MA
Plymouth, MA
Plympton, MA
Pocasset, MA
Prides Crossing, MA
Princeton, MA
Provincetown, MA
– Q –
Cities in Massachusetts that begin with the letter “Q”.

Quincy, MA
– R –
Cities in Massachusetts that begin with the letter “R”.

Randolph, MA
Raynham, MA
Raynham Center, MA
Reading, MA
Readville, MA
Rehoboth, MA
Revere, MA
Richmond, MA
Rochdale, MA
Rochester, MA
Rockland, MA
Rockport, MA
Roslindale, MA
Rowe, MA
Rowley, MA
Royalston, MA
Russell, MA
Rutland, MA
– S –
Cities in Massachusetts that begin with the letter “S”.

Sagamore, MA
Sagamore Beach, MA
Salem, MA
Salisbury, MA
Sandisfield, MA
Sandwich, MA
Saugus, MA
Savoy, MA
Scituate, MA
Seekonk, MA
Sharon, MA
Shattuckville, MA
Sheffield, MA
Shelburne Falls, MA
Sheldonville, MA
Sherborn, MA
Shirley, MA
Shrewsbury, MA
Shutesbury, MA
Siasconset, MA
Silver Beach, MA
Somerset, MA
Somerville, MA
South Barre, MA
South Carver, MA
South Chatham, MA
South Dartmouth, MA
South Deerfield, MA
South Dennis, MA
South Easton, MA
South Egremont, MA
South Grafton, MA
South Hadley, MA
South Hamilton, MA
South Harwich, MA
South Lancaster, MA
South Lee, MA
South Orleans, MA
South Walpole, MA
South Wellfleet, MA
South Yarmouth, MA
Southampton, MA
Southborough, MA
Southbridge, MA
Southfield, MA
Southwick, MA
Spencer, MA
Springfield, MA
Sterling, MA
Still River, MA
Stockbridge, MA
Stoneham, MA
Stoughton, MA
Stow, MA
Sturbridge, MA
Sudbury, MA
Sunderland, MA
Sutton, MA
Swampscott, MA
Swansea, MA
– T –
Cities in Massachusetts that begin with the letter “T”.

Taunton, MA
Templeton, MA
Tewksbury, MA
Thorndike, MA
Three Rivers, MA
Tolland, MA
Topsfield, MA
Townsend, MA
Truro, MA
Turners Falls, MA
Tyngsboro, MA
Tyringham, MA
– U –
Cities in Massachusetts that begin with the letter “U”.

Upton, MA
Uxbridge, MA
– V –
Cities in Massachusetts that begin with the letter “V”.

Village Of Nagog Woods, MA
Vineyard Haven, MA
– W –
Cities in Massachusetts that begin with the letter “W”.

Waban, MA
Wakefield, MA
Wales, MA
Walpole, MA
Waltham, MA
Ware, MA
Wareham, MA
Warren, MA
Warwick, MA
Watertown, MA
Waverley, MA
Wayland, MA
Webster, MA
Wellesley, MA
Wellesley Hills, MA
Wellfleet, MA
Wendell, MA
Wendell Depot, MA
Wenham, MA
West Barnstable, MA
West Boxford, MA
West Boylston, MA
West Bridgewater, MA
West Brookfield, MA
West Chatham, MA
West Chesterfield, MA
West Dennis, MA
West Falmouth, MA
West Groton, MA
West Harwich, MA
West Hatfield, MA
West Hyannisport, MA
West Medford, MA
West Millbury, MA
West Newbury, MA
West Newton, MA
West Roxbury, MA
West Springfield, MA
West Stockbridge, MA
West Tisbury, MA
West Townsend, MA
West Wareham, MA
West Warren, MA
West Yarmouth, MA
Westborough, MA
Westfield, MA
Westford, MA
Westminster, MA
Weston, MA
Westport, MA
Westport Point, MA
Westwood, MA
Weymouth, MA
Whately, MA
Wheelwright, MA
White Horse Beach, MA
Whitinsville, MA
Whitman, MA
Wilbraham, MA
Williamsburg, MA
Williamstown, MA
Wilmington, MA
Winchendon, MA
Winchendon Springs, MA
Winchester, MA
Windsor, MA
Winthrop, MA
Woburn, MA
Woods Hole, MA
Woodville, MA
Worcester, MA
Woronoco, MA
Worthington, MA
Wrentham, MA
– Y –
Cities in Massachusetts that begin with the letter “Y”.

Yarmouth Port, MA